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Technical Specs

In conventional corrugated plastic piping 15% of the pipe needs to have holes or gaps to be left in the pipes to allow water to transfer from the subsoil to the pipe and these tend to block with soil or allow silt into the pipe so blocking it or reducing the flow of water. This can be partially overcome by surrounding the pipes with gravel. However with time even the gravel becomes choked with soil/silt, so in the latest practices, There is the geocomposite 3D drainage pipe with a  "geotextile" material which filters out soil particles. The geotextile layer provides an excellent separation fillter  for land drainage. Since it allows the flow of water through the soil without any clogging of the new choice  drainage pipe filter. the soil will not become saturated, thereby improving the strength and stability of the soil for excellent soakage properties.

Maximum plant growth requires, among other factors, a particular soil-water regime that may exist naturally or be provided by appropriate irrigation and drainage. Water table depth plays an important role for soil conservation as affected on soil properties and crop productivity. Artificial drainage becomes necessary to control the water table and maintain a suitable aerated zone. The shallow water table reduces growth due to decrease rooting volume and insufficient oxygen. Drainage technology has developed around two basic needs: (i) to ensure aeration and trafficability for agricultural soils, and (ii) to provide for salinity control.

As a consequence, the goal usually has been to design systems that provide as much drainage as possible. Land drainage, as a tool to manage ground water levels, plays an important role in maintaining and improving crop yields: (i) it prevents a decrease in the productivity of arable land due to rising water tables and the accumulation of salts in the root zone.  And (ii) a large portion of the land that is currently not being cultivated has problems of water logging and salinity. Drainage is the only way to reclaim such land. Various crops respond differently to specific soil-water environments; so the key element of the shallow water table concept is the drainage requirement of the crop being grown. The determination of the prevailing specific conditions will permit a good understanding of the problems and their solutions.

Abdel-Mawgoud (1987) showed that the instillation of tile drains is considered one of the important factors affecting soil aggregate formation directly and indirectly. The direct effect is due to wetting and drying cycle, which create better environmental conditions for aggregate formation, whereas the indirect effect of tile drainage on soil structure may be due to the redistribution of chemical constituents through the soil profile. Concerning the effectiveness of subsurface drains in the reclamation of  lands, Madramootoo and Buckland (1990) found that soil salinity (EC) and sodicity (ESP) decreased by 18 and 13%, respectively in the upper 30-cm of the soil profile after two years from drain installation

Schellekens et al (1990) revealed that rapid desalinization might be achieved by the use of pipe–drains with reclamation leaching. Results indicated that the reclamation approach appears to have been relatively successful. Wenberg (1990) reported that subsurface drainage must be adequate to permit the necessary leaching, hold the water table to sufficient depth and prevent the upward movement of  capillary water to reach to root zone.

Soil Moisture Content:

The soil moisture content after several days of irrigation as affected by drain spacing and combined with subsoiling type are statistical analyzed and shown in table (2).  It is obvious that the moisture percentage by weight decreases with days after irrigation and net subsoiling than parallel one.  It is also evident that subsurface layer shows a lower moisture content than the upper layer in all treatments. Results are good agreement with that obtained by Moustafa (1984). This may be due to the frequent disturbance of soil particle system of packing under the different agricultural operations. The statistical analysis shows that there are highly significant of both drain spacing and subsoiling treatments on the soil moisture content. There are also highly significant interaction between drain spacing, subsoiling type and days after irrigation on soil moisture content.

Statistical analysis of soil moisture content for soil surface layer indicates that there is a highly significant effected by drain spacing and subsoiling treatments and also the interaction between them on soil dry after irrigation on surface soil. The 15 m drain spacing and net subsoiling and interaction between them are the most treatment affecting soil moisture content. The best treatment to dry soil and not to be longer logging is drain spacing at 15 m combined net subsoiling (fig.3,a,b and c).