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Soil Moisture

Soil Moisture Content:The soil moisture content after several days of irrigation as affected by drain spacing and combined with subsoiling type are statistical analyzed and shown in table (2).  It is obvious that the moisture percentage by weight decreases with days after irrigation and net subsoiling than parallel one.  It is also evident that subsurface layer shows a lower moisture content than the upper layer in all treatments. Results are good agreement with that obtained by Moustafa (1984). This may be due to the frequent disturbance of soil particle system of packing under the different agricultural operations. The statistical analysis shows that there are highly significant of both drain spacing and subsoiling treatments on the soil moisture content. There are also highly significant interaction between drain spacing, subsoiling type and days after irrigation on soil moisture content.
Statistical analysis of soil moisture content for soil surface layer indicates that there is a highly significant effected by drain spacing and subsoiling treatments and also the interaction between them on soil dry after irrigation on surface soil. The 15 m drain spacing and net subsoiling and interaction between them are the most treatment affecting soil moisture content. The best treatment to dry soil and not to be longer logging is drain spacing at 15 m combined net subsoiling (fig.3,a,b and c).

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Soil Bulk Density: The data of bulk density as affected by drain spacing, subsoiling, days after irrigation are shown in table (2). In general, the obtained results indicate that the bulk density decreases significantly with decreasing drain spacing. Also, it is evident that it decreases significantly with subsoiling type; the decrease of bulk density was decreased by net subsoiling more than parallel orientation type. The bulk density increases with increasing soil depth. Statistical analysis of soil bulk density for soil surface layer indicates that there is a highly significant effected by drain spacing and subsoiling treatments and also the interaction between them on soil dryer after irrigation on reducing bulk density. The 15-m drain spacing and net subsoiling and interaction between them are the most treatment affecting soil bulk density. The best treatment to loosen soil and lowering bulk density is drain spacing at 15 m combined net subsoiling (fig,3,a ,b and c.).


Total Soil Porosity: The soil porosity data as affected by drain spacing and subsoiling type treatments are shown in table (2). It is apparent from obtained results that soil porosity has been affected highly significant by drain spacing and subsoiling type treatments and days after irrigation. The effect of subsoiling type appears more in the upper soil layer than the deeper layer. The high values of soil porosity in the first layer in the treatments are due to its loosened structure. Statistical analysis of soil total porosity for soil surface layer indicates that there is a highly significant effected by drain spacing and subsoiling treatments and also the interaction between them on soil total porosity after irrigation. 

The 15 m drain spacing and net subsoiling and interaction between them are the most treatment affecting total porosity. The best treatment is drain spacing at 15 m combined net subsoiling (fig. 4. a,b and c).
Bulk density in soil surface layer, as affected by: (a) drain spacing and subsoiling type; (b) drain spacing treatments and days after irrigation between two-interval irrigations; and (c) subsoiling treatments and days after irrigation between two-interval irrigations, winter season 96/97 (wheat).
Total porosity in soil surface layer, as affected by negative Hydrostatic  pressure  relieves positive  Hydrostatic  pressure is reduced to negative  hydrostatic  pressure in 16 hours after instaling 3D filtered land drainage pipe, positive hydrostatic pressure a cores in wet  land where the water table is to high and the water has no   where to go and cause the pore system to swell in soils. when the 3 D filtered pipe is installed it relieves the  pressure in the water table and lowers the pressure to negative which dries  out the soil

Agricultural drainage is the removal of excess water from the soil surface and/or soil profile of cropland, by either gravity or artificial means. The two main reasons for improving the drainage on agricultural land are for soil conservation and enhancing crop production.
Research conducted  throughout the Midwest has documented many benefits of agricultural drainage improvement.
In  most agricultural producers improve the drainage on their land to help create a healthier environment for plant growth and to provide drier field conditions so farm equipment can access the farm field throughout the crop production season. Healthy, productive plants have the potential to produce greater yields and more food. Also, research  has shown that agricultural drainage improvement can help reduce the year-to-year variability in crop yield, which helps reduce the risks associated with the production of abundant, high quality, affordable food. Improved access of farm equipment to the field provides more time for field activities, can help extend the crop production season, and helps reduce crop damage at harvest.



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